There are also several different attacking schemes teams can use to keep the opposing defence off balance. If the team that won the point served in the previous point, the same player serves again. However, not only does the 6–2 require a team to possess two people capable of performing the highly specialized role of setter, it also requires both of those players to be effective offensive hitters when not in the setter position. One early Greek game known as episkyros involved two teams of equal numbers. Ball, spherical or ovoid object for throwing, hitting, or kicking in various sports and games. Similarly, teams might use a Serving Specialist to sub out a poor server. This too can confuse the opponent's blocking players: the setter can jump and dump or can set to one of the hitters. Ball playing also is of great antiquity in western Europe. [16] A ball is "in" if any part of it touches the inside of a team's court or a sideline or end-line, and a strong spike may compress the ball enough when it lands that a ball which at first appears to be going out may actually be in. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School (now called Springfield College), the game quickly became known as volleyball (it was originally spelled as two words: "volley ball"). If there is a sport missing or some information is incorrect, please make a comment below.

Each team consists of six players. Most often, the situation involves a team using a right side player with a big block who must be subbed out in the back row because they aren't able to effectively play backcourt defence. That rule change was also applied to high school and junior high play soon after. An example of this is the change made in the American football with the popularization of the forward pass, from the egg-shaped rugby ball to a more elongated shape that was easier to throw with accuracy. The Yahgan also used an inflated seal stomach as a ball. Tool/Wipe/Block-abuse: the player does not try to make a hard spike, but hits the ball so that it touches the opponent's block and then bounces off-court. [3] If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive players arranged in the rest of the court attempt to control the ball with a dig (usually a fore-arm pass of a hard-driven ball). [16] The most frequent errors that are made are either to fail to return the ball over the net within the allowed three touches, or to cause the ball to land outside the court.

In contemporary volleyball, many types of serves are employed: Also called reception, the pass is the attempt by a team to properly handle the opponent's serve or any form of attack. The most common style of screening involves a W formation designed to take up as much horizontal space as possible. These team movements are determined by the teams chosen serve receive system, offensive system, coverage system, and defensive system.

Back-row attacks generally come from the back-right position, known as zone 1, but are increasingly performed from back-centre in high-level play. The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until an error is made. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A defensive specialist is often used if you have a particularly poor back court defender in right side or left side, but your team is already using a libero to take out your middles. At some levels where substitutions are unlimited, teams will make use of a Defensive Specialist in place of or in addition to a Libero. Backcourt (or back row): an attack performed by a back-row player. After a successful dig, the team transitions to offence. The pancake is frequently used in indoor volleyball, but rarely if ever in beach volleyball because the uneven and yielding nature of the sand court limits the chances that the ball will make good, clean contact with the hand. The three front row players are all in attacking positions. This position does not have unique rules like the libero position, instead, these players are used to substitute out a poor back row defender using regular substitution rules.

By contrast, it is called a defensive, or "soft" block if the goal is to control and deflect the hard-driven ball up so that it slows down and becomes easier to defend. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Children playing with a football (soccer ball).

These errors include back-row or libero players spiking the ball or blocking (back-row players may spike the ball if they jump from behind the attack line), players not being in the correct position when the ball is served, attacking the serve in the frontcourt and above the height of the net, using another player as a source of support to reach the ball, stepping over the back boundary line when serving, taking more than 8 seconds to serve,[19] or playing the ball when it is above the opponent's court. Defensive systems are the formations used by the defence to protect against the ball being grounded into their court by the opposing team. There are a large number of other errors specified in the rules, although most of them are infrequent occurrences. The FIVB changed the rules in 1999 (with the changes being compulsory in 2000) to use the current scoring system (formerly known as rally point system), primarily to make the length of the match more predictable and to make the game more spectator- and television-friendly. [27] The libero is a player specialized in defensive skills: the libero must wear a contrasting jersey color from their teammates and cannot block or attack the ball when it is entirely above net height. [9] An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), was founded in 1947, and the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women.

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